Welcome to this blog, we will be discussing about what is Computer Networking and types. Aslo explain the types and different categories they all belong.
What is Computer Networking
A computer network is a setup that joins a lot of separate computers together to share resources and information. User communication is made easier by the integration of computers and other technologies.
A collection of two or more interconnected computer systems is referred to as a computer network. Cable or wireless media can be used to create a network connection. Computers and tools are connected in any network using hardware and software.
A computer network is made up of different types of nodes. Nodes in a computer network can include servers, networking equipment, personal computers, and other specialized or general-purpose hosts. Network addresses and hostnames are used to identify them.
Criteria of good network:
Performance: There are several ways to gauge it, including transmission and reaction times. The length of time needed for a message to get from one device to another is known as the transit time. The period of time between a request and a response is known as the response time. Many variables, such as the number of users, the medium type, and the technology, affect the network’s performance.
Reliability: In addition to accuracy, reliability is determined by the frequency of failures, the amount of time it takes a link to recover after a failure, and the resilience of the network in the face of disaster.
Security: Security concerns with networks include preventing unauthorized access, safeguarding data against deterioration and development, and putting in place rules and procedures for dealing with security breaches and data loss.
Objective of Networking:
▪︎ Because of resource and load sharing, programs don’t have to run on a single system.
▪︎ Cost savings – Multiple machines can share peripherals like tape drives, printers, and other devices.
▪︎ Reliability: If one machine breaks down, another can step in.
▪︎ Scalability (easy expansion of the number of processors or computers).
▪︎ Both mail and communication (people living apart can work together).
▪︎ Information Obtaining (remote information access, access to the internet, e-mail, video conferencing, and online shopping).
▪︎ Interactivity in entertainment (online games, videos, etc.)
▪︎ Social Networking.
Types of Networks
Based on the means of Communication
Wired Network: As we all know, a physical media that is “wired” is one that is made up of cables. Options include copper wire, twisted pair, and fiber optic cables. A wired network uses wires to connect devices, including laptops and desktop PCs, to the Internet or another network.
Wireless Network: “Wireless” refers to electromagnetic (EM) or infrared (IR) wave-based media that does not require a wire. All wireless gadgets will have antennas or sensors. Wireless gadgets include cellular phones, wireless sensors, TV remote controls, satellite disc receivers, and laptops with WLAN cards. A wireless network substitutes radio frequency waves for wires for data and voice transmission.
Division based on area covered
Local Area Network (LAN): A network called LAN spans a region of around 10 kilometers. a network at a workplace or a college, as an illustration. A LAN might be an one office, a building, or an entire campus, depending on the requirements of the organization. Two PCs and a printer can be used in the home office, or it can be used throughout a whole organization and incorporate audio and video equipment. Every host in a LAN has a unique identifier, or address, that describes other hosts. The source host’s address and the destination host’s address are both included in a packet that a host sends to another host.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): A network that encircles a whole city is referred to as MAN. Take the cable television network, for instance.
Wide Area Network (WAN): A network that connects continents or nations is referred to as a WAN. For instance, users can access a distributed system called www from any location in the world thanks to the Internet. Switches, routers, and modems are examples of connecting equipment that the WAN connects. Typically, a LAN is privately owned by the company that uses it. Point-to-point WANs and switched WANs are the two main types of WANs that we see nowadays.
Point To Point: Connects two connecting devices through transmission media.
Switched: A switched WAN is a network with more than two ends.
Based on types of communication
Point-to-Point networks: A direct connection between two networking nodes is established via point-to-point networking, a type of data networking.
A direct link between two devices, such as a computer and a printer, is known as a point-to-point connection.
Multipoint: is the scenario where there are more than two identical devices sharing links. The channel’s capacity is shared in a multipoint context, either geographically or chronologically. It is a spatially shared connection if multiple devices can use it at the same time.
Broadcast networks: a signaling technique used in broadcast networks that allows multiple recipients to hear a single sender. An great example of the “Broadcast Network” in daily life is radio stations. In this instance, the radio station is the sender of data or a signal, and data is only meant to move in one direction. To be exact, away from the radio transmitter tower.
Based on the type of architecture
P2P Networks: Peers are computers that share comparable features and configurations. Peer to peer is referred to simply as “Peer to Peer.” Computer systems linked to one another via the Internet are referred to as “peers” in a peer-to-peer network. Files can be transferred directly between systems connected to a network without the need for a central server.
Client-Server Networks: In a client-server architecture (client/server), every computer or networked process is either a client or a server. The server responds to the client’s request for services by offering those services. High-performance computers or programs known as servers are used to control network traffic, printers, or disc drives (network servers).
Hybrid Networks: A network that combines client-server and peer-to-peer architecture is referred to as a hybrid model. Like torrent.
1. Bus Topology: In a bus topology network, each computer and networking device is linked to a single cable. The exact number of terminals required for a linear bus topology is two.
▪︎ It’s easy to install.
▪︎ The bus uses less cable than mesh, star, and tree topologies.
▪︎ Difficulty in fault isolation and reconfiguration.
▪︎ All communication is halted by bus cable damage or malfunction.
2. Ring Topology: The fact that one computer is connected to another, with the last one being connected to the first, gives the topology its name: ring topology. For each gadget, there are precisely two neighbors. A signal is transmitted in one way around the ring. A repeater is incorporated into each ring.
▪︎ Because packets can only flow in one direction, data transfer is rather simple.
▪︎ To govern communication between nodes, a central controller is not necessary.
▪︎ installation and reconfiguration are simpleFaulty connections explained simply.
▪︎ A data packet in a unidirectional ring must pass through each node.
▪︎ To communicate with one another, all computers must be turned on.
3. Star Topology: Each device connected to a central controller, also known as the HUB, in a star topology has a dedicated point-to-point link. The devices are not directly connected to one another. In this architecture, there is no authorized traffic between the devices. The controller is utilized in exchanging.
▪︎ There are no network hiccups when connecting or unplugging devices.
▪︎ It’s simple to set up and configure.
▪︎ It is easy to locate and isolate flaws.
▪︎ More affordable than mesh.
▪︎ install and configure quickly.
▪︎ If the hub, switch, or concentrator fail, so do any nodes attached to them.
▪︎ It is more expensive than linear bus topologies due to the cost of the hubs.
▪︎ Compared to a bus or ring, more cable is necessary over reliance on Hub. For example, high-speed LANs.
4. Mesh Topology: In a mesh topology, each device has dedicated point-to-point connectivity to each other. The word “dedicated” describes a link that only transfers data between the two connected devices. A mesh network with all devices linked has n *(n-1)/2 physical channels.
▪︎ Data can be supplied simultaneously from numerous devices. A lot of traffic can be handled by this topology.
▪︎ There is always a backup connection accessible even if one connection fails. Data transfer is therefore unaffected.
▪︎ Physical barriers keep other users from reading messages.
▪︎ Point to point links facilitate fault separation and transmission.
▪︎ How much wiring is required, as well as how many I/O ports.
▪︎ The amount of wiring alone may take up more room than is practical.
▪︎ It is difficult to install and reconfigure. Example: connection of telephone regional office in which each regional office needs to be connected to every other regional office.
5. Tree Topology: A tree’s topology is comparable to a star’s. A central hub that controls network traffic is connected to each node in a tree, much like they are in a star. There is a root node, which connects to every other node and creates a hierarchy. Another name for it is hierarchical topology. In a tree topology, a number of Star networks are connected via buses.
▪︎ Expanding a network is both doable and easy.
▪︎ We partition the entire network into pieces (star networks) that are easier to manage and maintain.
▪︎ If one segment is harmed, the other segments are unharmed.
▪︎ Because of its fundamental design, tree topology heavily depends on the main bus wire, and if it breaks, the entire network suffers.
▪︎ The difficulty of maintenance increases as more nodes and segments are added.
All networks employ the same basic hardware to connect network nodes, including Network Interface Cards (NICs), Bridges, Hubs, Switches, and Routers. Additionally, a means of linking various components of the building is required; optical fiber is less common than galvanic cable. The network devices are as follows:
▪︎ NIC (Network Interface Card): Computer hardware that facilitates network communication between computers is known as a network card, also referred to as a network adapter or NIC (network interface card). It provides direct physical access to networking resources, and MAC addresses frequently act as a form of low-level addressing. There is a unique identifier for each network interface card. This information is kept on a card-attached chip.
▪︎ Repeater: A repeater is an electrical device that receives a signal, removes any interference, regenerates it, and then retransmits it at a higher power level or to the other side of an obstruction so that the signal can go farther without degrading. For cable lengths more than 100 meters in some systems, repeaters are required in the majority of twisted pair Ethernet networks. Repeaters are physics-based devices.
▪︎ Hub: A hub is a component that connects numerous twisted-pair or fiber-optic Ethernet components to create the appearance of a single network segment. One way to think of the gadget is as a multiport repeater. A comparatively straightforward broadcast device is a network hub. Hubs have no control over the traffic that travels through them; every packet that enters a port is created and disseminated out on all other ports. Every packet is sent out through every other port, which significantly impedes the smooth flow of communication by causing packet collisions.
▪︎ Bridges: Bridges broadcast data to every port, but not to the one where it was received. In contrast to hubs, which duplicate messages to all ports, bridges identify which MAC addresses can be reached through certain ports. The bridge will only send traffic for that address to that port once a port and an address are linked.
▪︎ Switches: In contrast to a hub, a switch only forwards frames to the ports involved in the communication. It does not do this for all of the connected ports. A switch destroys the collision domain, but it presents itself as a broadcast domain. Switches rely their frame forwarding decisions on MAC addresses.
▪︎ Routers: In order to send data packets between networks as efficiently as possible, routers, which are networking equipment, use forwarding tables and headers. A router is a piece of hardware used in computer networking that connects two or more networks and exchanges data packets only when necessary. A router can detect whether a data packet has to be carried between networks by looking at the address information in each data packet to see if the source and destination are on the same network. Each router can create a table showing the preferred pathways between any two systems on the linked networks when several routers are placed in a large collection of interconnected networks.
▪︎ Gateways: A gateway may include components like protocol translators, impedance matching devices, rate converters, fault isolators, or signal translators to ensure system compatibility. Additionally, it calls for the creation of administrative practices that both networks can agree on. A protocol translation/mapping gateway connects networks that utilize various network protocol technologies by performing the required protocol conversions.
A wider network called the internet enables computer networks operated by businesses, governments, educational institutions, and other organizations to communicate with one another. As a result, digital data may travel across the globe thanks to a maze of cables, computers, data centers, routers, servers, repeaters, satellites, and wi-fi towers.
A networking infrastructure, the Internet is a huge network of networks. It creates a network that allows any computer to communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet by connecting millions of computers all over the world.
The Internet is a vast network of linked computers that uses the Internet Protocol Suite to interact and share data. Thanks for visiting our site, for more content kindly comment and allow notification on this site.